Answer Scheme Past Year 2009

Jul 1, 2011

Answer Scheme 2009

alternative link for download :

-Just copy the link and paste it at the address box .Press enter and then the download will start instantaneously.

Answer Scheme Past Year 2010

Answer Scheme 2010

ILO for Physiology?

Jun 30, 2011

Assalamu'alaikum wbt.

As for our next paper : PHYSIOLOGY



1. Parturition (of endocrine system, pg 117)
2. Physical caloric value of food (metabolism, pg 4)
just know the value of
  • 4.1 kCal/gram of CHO
  • 9.3 KCal/gram of fat
  • 4.1 KCal/gram of protein
3. Direct calorimetry (metabolism, pg 6)
4. Importance of RQ : 1. "indicates the type of food being utilized" point, just know :
(metabolism pg 8)
  • RQ for CHO is 1.0
  • RQ for fats is 0.7
  • RQ for protein is 0.82
and very important to remember that "the energy equivalent of O2 is 4.82
5. Steady State (metabolism, pg 19)
6. Obesity (metabolism pg 41) - omitted
*Based on what we have taken in the lectures.*

     1.       Hormones
     2.       Pituitary Gland:
Hormones of Ant Pituitary
TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, GH, Prolactin
Growth Hormone (GH)
-actions/ functions
HYPO-dwarfism, partial pituitary insufficiency, panhypopituitarism.
HYPER-Gigantism, acromegaly
Hormones of Post Pituitary
ADH(vasopressin) & Oxytocin
Diabetes insipidus

     3.       Thyroid Gland
-Functions of its hormones
-HYPOthyroidism; causes, myxedema, cretinism

     4.       Parathyroid Gland
-Functions of its hormones

     5.       Calcitonin
-functions & control

     6.       Calcium & phosphate metabolism

     7.       Vitamin D
     8.       Adrenal Gland:
-Actions of its hormones(catecholamines)
-Effect of def
-Effect of excess; pheochromocytoma


-1ry HYPERaldosteronism(Conn’s syndrome)
-Effect of def

-HYPOadrenalism(Addison’s disease);
...mineralocorticoid def+glucocorticoid def
-HYPERadrenalism(Cushing’s syndrome)
...excess cortisol


-Adrenogenital syndrome; excess androgen

     9.       Pancreas:
-hormones secreted by it
-Insulin; functions & control
-Glucagon; Actions & regulation
-Diabetes Mellitus; Def in insulin or low insulin in blood or depressed in insulin function.
§  Manifestations
§  Disturbance in the metabolism of CHO, protein, and fat.
              -hyperinsulinemia; hypoglycaemic shockàprogressive irritabilityàfainting, convulsions, coma.
     10.   Reproduction & Hormonal Functions of Male
-          Functions of blood testis barrier
-          Functions of Sertoli
-          Hormonal factors that stimulate spermatogenesis
-          What happens to sperms in the epididymis?
-          Functions of the seminal vesicle
-          Functions of prostate gland
-          Semen
-          Endocrinal functions of testes; effect during fetal development & during adult
-          Control of male sexual functions
-          Puberty & regulation of its onset
-          Abnormalities; hypogonadism, hypergonadism

     11.   Female reproductive system
-          Components of female reproductive system
-          Ovarian cycle
-          Endometrial cycle
-          Ovarian hormones; estrogens and progesterones
-          Abnormalities of secretion by ovaries; hypogonadism, hypersecretion of ovaries
-          Pregnancy
*Parturition is NOT INCLUDED in the exam.
12. Mammary Glands and Lactation
-development of mammary glands
-milk formation(secretion)
-milk ejection


     1.      Renal physiology
a)      Functions of kidney
b)      Contents of excreted urine

     2.      Physiologic anatomy of the kidney
a)      Malphigian corpuscle
b)      Renal tubule

     3.      Renal circulation
a)      Blood supply & drainage
b)      Characters of renal circulation
c)      Nerve supply

     4.      Formation of urine
a)      3 main processes
b)      Glomerular filtration:
·         Membrane
·         Rate

     5.      Dynamics of glomerular filtration
a)      Glomerular pressure
b)      Bowman’s capsule pressure
c)      Colloid osmotic pressure
d)      Filtration pressure
e)      Filtration coefficient (Kf)
f)       Factors for high GFR:
·         High capillary blood pressure
·         High Kf

     6.      Factors affecting GFR
*There’s 7 of them

     7.      The concept of plasma clearance
a)      Plasma cl.
b)      Inulin cl.
c)      Creatine cl.
d)      PAH cl.
*Train yourself to substitute the values given in problem question into the formula

     8.      The juxtaglomerular complex
a)      Structure
b)      Function

     9.      Autoregulation of GFR
a)      Mechanism of autoregulation of GFR
b)      Special feedback mechanism in case of hypotension
c)      Autoregulation of renal blood flow.

     10.  Transport through renal tubule
a)      Active
b)      Passive

     11.  Functions of PCT
a)      Functions: *There’s 6 of them
b)      Secretion in PCT

     12.  Reabsorption in LOH
a)      Thin descending/ Thin ascending/ Thick ascending.
b)      Functions of LOH

     13.  Functions of DCT
*There’s 3 of them

     14.  Tubular reabsorption maxima
a)      For glucose
b)      For PAH

     15.  Osmolality
     16.  Diluting mechanism of kidney
*This process depends on the presence of ADH hormone

     17.  Concentrating mechanism of the kidney
*Pay close attention to this topic!!
     18.  Renal function test
a)      Renal cl. Test
b)      Test depending on blood analysis
c)      Physical analysis of urine
d)      IV pyelography

     19.  Physiologic anatomy & nervous connection of UB
*Innervation of the bladder

     20.  The micturition reflex
a)      Understand micturation reflex itself
b)      Control of micturation by the brain

     21.  Acid-Base balance
a)      Hydrogen ion balance
b)      Threats of pH
c)      Defense against changes in Hydrogen concentration:
 *know the function of each defense mechanism
*The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is mentioned in the lecture, so you kneed to know about it. But the doctor mentioned that it will not come out in the exams.

     22.  Acid-Base disturbances
a)      Respiratory pH disturbances
b)      Metabolic pH disturbances
c)      Effects on the body

     23.  Physiology of the body fluids
a)      Regulation of volume & osmolality of body fluid:
·         Water balance: Input&Output
·         Control of water balance : *Take note of the thirst centre!
·         Mechanism of water balance

*The Regulation of circulating blood volume is not included insyaAllah


     1.      ENERGY TRANSFER:
      a)      High energy compound
      b)     Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
      c)      Creatine Phosphate
      d)     Unit of heat  energy

     2.      ENERGY BALANCE:
      a)      Caloric intake
      b)   (Physical caloric value of food will not be included)(metabolism, pg 4)
just know the value of
a.     4.1 KCal/gram of CHO
b.      9.3 KCal/gram of fat
c.       4.1 KCal/gram of protein
      c)      Energy output
      d)     Measurement of metabolic rate
      e)   -Direct calorimetry will not be included (metabolism, pg 6)
      f)    -Indirect calorimetry will be included
      g)      The respiratory quotient (RQ)
h)     -Importance..of  RQ just know
                     i.        RQ for CHO is 1.0
                    ii.        RQ for fats is 0.7
                   iii.        RQ for protein is 0.82
                            iv.            and very important to remember that "the energy equivalent of O2 is 4.82
      i)     -factors affecting the RQ
      j)        Factors affecting metabolic rate
      k)      Basal metabolic rate
      l)        Steady state WILL NOT be included (pg 19)

      a)      Normal body temp.
      b)     Physical variation in body temp.
      c)      Balance bet. Heat production & heat loss
      d)     Temp. regulating center
      e)      Temp.regulating mechanism
      f)       Abnormalities in body temp.regulation

      a)      Neural centers for regulation of food intake
      b)     Factors regulating food intake
      a)      Causes
      b)     Effects of complete starvation

Selamat Study. Bittaufiq wan Najah.

It's Exam Time! : 6th Semester Physiology Practical Exam

Jun 14, 2011

Assalamu'laikum wbt.

Here we are~ exam season! Starting by next week insha Allah. :D

And so, for our All-time favourite Physiology subject - practical exam, here are some info we've gained so far :
For Endocrine System

  • This system will have more question portion in the exam. Insha Allah. *to be confirmed again later on*
  • Focus more on hormonal diseases of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, adrenal hormones (mineralocorticoids & glucocorticoids)
  • Not to forget - study the functions of each hormones too! ;)
  • Manifestations of each disease + how they occur. eg : how exopthalmus occurs in thyrotoxicosis?
  • Causes of the diseases
  • Tetany - types, causes & test for diagnosis
Revision Slide download link : Endocrinology

For Renal System
  • Renal Function Test to be focused on.
  • Remember the normal values (urine volume, specific gravity etc...)
  • Normal values of each test
  • Causes of increase or decrease of the values
  • Equations (eg : max. urea clearance, standard urea clearance)
  • Units (eg : mg/dL... etc)

Revision slide download link : Renal System

More information will be added later on. insha Allah.

All the best from us, section 1! =p

Bittaufiq wan najah. :D

Parathyroid Gland

May 30, 2011


  1. What is hyperparathyroidism?
  2. What are the manifestations of hyperparathyroidism?
  3. What stimulates the release of parathormone from the parathyroid gland?
  4. What is hypoparathyroidism?
  5. What are the manifestation(s) of hypoparathyroidism?
  6. What is the normal blood calcium level?
  7. If the blood calcium level is 7mg/dL, what are the tests that can be done to diagnose it?
  8. What is the level of blood calcium in manifest and latent tetany respectively?

  1.  What is this sign called?
  2. Describe the picture shown above.
  3. Is this condition a chronic state or acute state of hypocalcemia?
  4. What are the possible causes for hypocalcemia other than defect in the parathyroid gland function?

  1.  What is this sign called?
  2. How can the procedure to ellicit the sign be done?
  3. Describe the picture shown above.